The Fit And Capable
To many, the mind is so insubstantial that no definition as to how it ever came into being seems necessary. The mind, however, is much like the monitor on a computer. What we see on the screen is the focus of it's mind. There is much more in the machine which may be called upon and contemplated.
That larger resource is somehow bound up in hundreds of thousands of tiny transistors. Those of us who have been looking at catalogues over the past few years realize that the capabilities of the developing computer have depended on their cards of transistors and those physical relationships to each other. The development of the human mind is very similar in that it has a course of relationships with banks of brain cells. Computers, as yet, do not match the human brain, but some of us live in terror of a time when they will. When the numbers of transistors in one machine reach billions, humans may have to stretch their capabilities to keep up. Perhaps, on the other hand, a genius computer may be governed by a moron.
It should be noted that layered over biological determinism, as it applies to capabilities in social and intellectual endeavors, is the evolution of ideas in regard to their progression, distribution, and influence. Scientific ideas, often noted with their dates of discovery, have been found to come to fruition simultaneously in many minds around the world. This suggests a similar progression of ideas at the same time in several minds. Dissemination refers to the spread of ideas to new minds. In order for an intelligent mind to participate in the progression of ideas there has to be similar exposure to their origins.
Specific heritable behavioral traits have been recognized in humans. We know, for instance, that schizophrenia is inherited in fifteen percent of the cases with one such parent, and over thirty percent of the cases with two such schizophrenic parents. Schizophrenia is a pathological type of mental condition. The schizoid personality is a most significant type of heritable human behavior. Medical scientists have well established the heritability of pathological behavior, but they will still doubt that good behavior traits and capabilities can also be heritable. We have noted heritable abilities in musical families. We have also noted the lineage of certain families of genius.
There is a perverse sense of justice that works against all this. There are people who would argue that "subspecies" of humans who have worked to improve their line have done so to no avail, and that all evidence to the contrary is illusory. We will show this to be wrong!
We will skip over any of the ancient myths to the contrary and immediately grant that the mind resides in the brain, and that the characteristics of the mind are determined by the brain. Localities of brain tumors, strokes, brain injuries, and brain surgery have validated our ideas about this. Most paleoanthropologists agree that the human mind evolved along with the brain.
Dr. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) was honored as the "Father of Anthropology". He carefully studied and classified the fit and capable populations of humanity in every corner of the world in his time into seven groups:
"Savage": (could he get away with that now?) low, middle, and high;
He placed the line of division between savage and barbarian at the point of the manufacturing of pottery. The fact that his high savages could learn to mimic barbarians in the manufacture of pottery upset Dr. Morgan's categories. Being unaware of the physical limitations and physical evolution of the brain, he hastily concluded any man could be educated and become "civilized".
Franz Boas (1858-1942) continued this point of view, and promoted the idea that the difference between the lowest and highest types of men was a simple matter of conditioning. Boas decried the rather harsh classifications of Morgan, and substituted "emerging populations", and "advanced populations", all with the implied understanding that one could be converted into the next higher category by education.
Both of these men made remarkable and objective observations of the populations of the world. In this presentation we will create a synthesis of these observations and relate them to evolutionary principles to gain a better understanding of why these people were as they were, and what can be expected in the future. In the chapters to come, we will follow the progress of a group of people who's culture followed evolutionary principles and, as a result, produced some of the most brilliant people in the world today.
In this chapter, we will substitute "preliterate populations" for Frans Boas' terminology: "emerging populations". We will also keep the term "barbarian", from Dr. Morgan's terminology, because we still act like barbarians. For reasons to be explained, "barbarian" will be transformed into "literate barbarian". We will also add another category called "Steward". It must also be emphasized from the very beginning that any identifiable group of people has a wide range of capabilities among it's members. This is not only confirmed by any tested measurements of any group of humans, but is also a necessary requirement for, and a result of, the evolution of humanity. Due to this, there is always the possibility of finding individuals among an preliterate population who are capable of learning some degree of reading, for instance.
Evolution has no direction. However, in western civilization, the evidence indicates that evolution starts with minimal capabilities and gradually develops more and better talents. Every capability of significance is heritable. Each heritable capability must lead to increased survival among a group of individuals having the new capabilities or it will be lost again in succeeding generations. As evolution progresses, there can only be incremental improvements in succeeding generations emerging from environmental and social demands. All development is gradual and based on available variation present in the population. Since it is generally accepted, due to our understanding of DNA, that we all emerged from Africa, evolution must be accepted or we would all still be like the original, no-longer-existent, preliterate Africans from which we all emerged. Preliterate populations existing today broke-off long ago and continued, fit and capable, in their environment. Even so, there will be a variety of reading capabilities among these people. There will undoubtedly be some who could read if they were exposed to it. Without a variety of capabilities in every group, evolution would not have been possible. As a result, we can look at these "populations" of biologically determined characteristics as not only representing a point of development, but also being existent across race and geographical location.
Early Evolutionary Thresholds
Conquest of fire
Sexual mate selection
The evolutionary threshold of literacy
The Preliterate Populations
About 15,000 years ago (more or less), all of humanity was preliterate. This is just a guess because writing has not survived unless it was on clay tablets. Perhaps the time of this threshold could be better estimated by the size of cities, or something. Although virtually each group of humanity today has a percentage of illiteracy, the bulk of the preliterate population is contained in what Boaz called the emerging populations. Literacy is an evolutionary threshold and is measurable.
The pre-pottery people
Concern for possessions did not evolve among the pre-pottery people because it took very little energy to replace anything they have. When the ambient temperatures are such that a person never needs clothes, clothing will always be a matter of whimsy rather than a necessity. In this case concerns with property would be a burden rather than a help. When the necessities of life are freely and consistently available in the environment, concern for acquiring them is at a minimum. To obtain them does not require an investment of time and energy, therefore, property needs no value. If an article is lost or taken, one only has to reach out and get another one when one needs such an article again.
Whenever possessions take time and energy to make, they are taken along when the person moves. Among these preliterate people, if a person should find an article that better suits him as a tool, he drops the one he is carrying so he will not have to carry two. Under such circumstances a dropped article is almost always a discarded article and it is free for anyone who finds it and wants it. Whenever such a article is picked up, it is almost always because it is better than the one the finder has, and he would drop his own before he moves on. Then, if the former owner sees it and wants it back, the finder would be much put out because he would then be without a that article himself. Under such circumstances, concerns about property were of no evolutionary value and did not evolve.
The post-pottery populations
It wasn't long before innovators all over the world began to make larger half shells and fire them to make bowls. Good clay for firing can be rolled into strings between the palms of the hands, and pots can be constructed by laying string upon string until a functional bowl could be constructed. It followed the same principles of weaving baskets which many already knew.
The whole process was much simplified by the fact that people had to be by fresh water. Until the innovation of pottery, all people had to live near fresh water. The banks of fresh water vary from place to place with the occasional occurrence of good pottery clay. Once pottery was invented, people could increase the distance between where they lived and the nearest potable water. Another important consideration was that pottery was the first durable tool that was a family possession. Up to that time durable possessions belonged to individuals.
Stone points belonged to men hunters. Scrapers were given to women who scraped skins. Baskets, where they existed at all, were made by and belonged to the women. The drinking bowl belonged to the group, or at least, was used by all the group. As a cooking pot it was also used by all the group. This concept was very new. It took a new type of mind to take care of it.
Possessions are a responsibility, and it takes a responsible person to take care of them. It was an annoyance to forget a tool, or break it, or have it stolen, or lost. It was one thing to deal with one's own property, and another thing to deal with group property. It took an entirely new type of personality to deal with such problems. Among the people who had developed pottery, possession became a necessary requirement. Those who did not comprehend this were sexually ignored or eliminated.
Eradication of Pygmies
Property and value
Possession as a biological determinant
Each type believes that everybody either acts that way, or they are crazy! Each type of people believes that there is nothing wrong with the way they act, and that what they do is natural and right, and, in deed, it is!
Monistic and duoistic
The monistic people who feel that their body is part of their environment may modify it extensively. They may stretch their lips, ears, and neck. They may scar their skin extensively. They may cut off their fingers. On the other hand, duoistic people (barbarians) may decorate their bodies with possessions, such as valuable jewels and metals. Tattoos may occur, but body modification is not extensively practiced.
Neurologically, we have even gone so far as to distinguish that in a right handed person this development of a sense of "self" may take place anatomically in the frontal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere of the brain. If this portion of the brain is accidentally ablated, the subject loses his special sense of individual awareness, that is, if he ever had it.
Studies of the effects of education point out that it does not dispel superstition. The belief in the supernatural goes deeper than learning. The ability to deal with science is a special heritable capability. A scientific capability is an ability to displace a factor from nature to human understanding and possible control. The evolution of the human mind is an evolution of displacement: the displacement of natural factors to human control.
Lifestyle Sanitation is minimally understood. Babies soil the ground where they are. Adults do not move far to relieve themselves. Bad smells are well tolerated. Litter is prevalent. Everything is dropped where the user loses interest. Scraps of food are left where they fall. Cleanup is by wild scavengers and insects. They live in the "here and now" and lack the mental ability to consider much of the past or future. Whether they are in the forest of Borneo or living on the streets of Seattle, intransigence is their hallmark. They are impressed by physical strength and power and choose their leaders on this basis. They are fascinated and obsessed with the bodily functions of sex and excretion.
The Story of Coconuts
"Hina (meaning pubic patch) was the wife of the monster Eel, Te Tuna (the penis). Hina became tired of Te Tuna and set out to find a greater fulfillment. In her journey, she passed through the lands of the Tane Clan (male principal), Peka (penetrating embrace), and Tu (erect). Each pointed the way to Maue-Tiki-a-Antarage (wonder worker, the timid), a man with a huge lop-sided penis with whom she united in a struggle of passion that caused a hurricane and an earthquake felt throughout the world." "When Te Tuna heard that Maui had taken Hina as his mate, goaded by the Tanes, Pekas and the Tus, he went after Maui. After an Earth shaking fight, Maui cut off Te Tuna's head and buried it. From the head sprouted the first coconut palm."
It should not be omitted that mankind is everywhere tricky and enjoys a good practical joke. One can hardly deny this to these natives. One can easily imagine them saying: "you should have heard the whopper I told that white man! But it sure made him happy!"
The Literate Barbarians
On the other hand, to add to the confusion, there are examples of barbaric cultures which became civilized such as the Lombards in Italy and the Manchu in China. Today, the fantasy of the Barbarian, still a preliterate such as Conan the Barbarian, has acquired admirable qualities descending from the enlightenment idealization of the "Noble Savage" by Jean-Jacques Rousseau 250 years ago. From this idealization, the barbarian is spontaneous, spiritual, and in touch with nature, while the civilized person is repressed, materialistic, and heartless. This adds a deserved broader dimension to the barbarian which makes him less contemptuous.
With all these contradictions surrounding the concept of the barbarian, use of the term has reached satirical proportions such as in the movie Barbarian Invasions and the book Barbarians at the Gates. Both of these examples intimate that we still possess qualities not that different from our "barbarian" predecessors. All that we have discussed so far presents a contradiction and dichotomy between the barbarian and the civilization in humanity.
The only way we can integrate all that we have covered here in regard to the barbarian and the civilized person is to say that at the dividing line of literacy we are all barbarians, in the broadest sense. After the advent of literacy, every evolving, living individual or society begins the transformation from a barbarian, with all the characteristics held in contempt by the civilized man, to become more and more infused with civility. This is a gradual transition taking sometimes a few years, and sometimes several centuries. The infusion of civility continues till there is there is experienced a total civilization of the individual resulting in the new viewpoint of the "Steward".
Now the thought might arise: "So, if we are a mixture of barbarian and civilized characteristics, I would rather emphasize the civilized part of me!" The danger in associating with this more evolved form is that it can fuel barbaric arrogance and self-righteousness to the point of neglecting to check one's own contemptuous characteristics. I believe this thought was expressed in the words of a well known, apparently objective observer of humanity: " Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother's eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye?" (Matthew 7:3).
So we introduce the Literate Barbarian as the second classification of humanity between the "preliterate populations" and the "steward". Most people today don't think of ourselves as literate barbarians; however, we are not that far advanced from the barbarians who defined the word in most people's minds. A detailed history of the literate barbarian evolution might begin with a newly edited large encyclopedia. Literate barbarians have formed the civilized world as we know it. The most capable literate barbarians have a sense of awareness that extends beyond themselves to their family, estate, country, and world. Their advanced social bonding enables hundreds of thousands of them to conduct orchestrated efforts of mass production, industry, warfare and commerce. For the literate barbarian, interaction with society is more of a competition than cooperation.
Because of their supernatural belief, they tend to have a deep faith in logic. Whatever is logical is automatically true.
Literate Barbarian Wars
During the first 1500 AD years of war, the traditions of battle had much to do with advancing literacy and general intelligence. It was rigid military tradition that the opposing armies would line up on the battlefield in two great masses. The least capable, dull witted, and preliterate individuals were placed on the front lines to trip-up the advances of the opposing army. The next most capable were on the second line of defense and so it went until the cadre, who overlooked the scene from a distant high ground.
Almost every battle of the middle ages reduced the preliterate population. If the battle was not going well for one side, the more capable individuals would retreat. The downside of that was the victorious army took no prisoners and would slay every last soldier they could catch. When they were done, they would typically go to the country or town of the vanquished and slay all the women and children. Virgin women were often an exception.
Our civilized attempts to make warfare more humane and spare the noncombatants has only defeated part of the evolutionary significance of warfare. We now-a-days go to war and kill off the best of both sides leaving a genetically weakened population to carry on for future generations. This was shown to be true when Napoleon shortened the French by putting all the tall men in the front lines of battle. With nuclear warfare the whole problem may be wiped out on both sides! The misfits and criminal people of Europe either emigrated to America or were sent there. There, the story of conflict and slaughter was continued. To the Indians, the white man was just another tribe. Before the European arrived, there is archeological evidence of four great Indian nations in just the northeast which were annihilated by other Indians. Any finer analysis of the motives of the conquerors may be just a scrim to cover a basic aggressiveness.
Victory goes to the craftier warrior. The victor uses more elaborate maneuvers, and better trained troops. He also thinks more about outwitting his opponents, plans ahead a little better, and works a better system of logistics so that he does not run out of supplies at a critical moment. We refer euphemistically to following man's progress by studying his tools, but it is his weapons that reveal his sophistication. Skin-scrapers remained simple skin-scrapers for eons, but the weapons improved radically in the meantime. From the various models of war arrows, clubs, and spears we go on to armor, shields, chariots, siege engines, and finally gunpowder and atomic explosives.
For those who are appalled at this recount they should remember that we are trying to get an appraisal of man and a measure of Truth. If the above story applies, and it does apply to some people today in the way that they wage war, then its effect on mankind should be measured. We may well disapprove of war as a social function, but we must know what effect it has had on humanity. We must realize that warfare has been a human function for so long that we may well ask if we can get along without it (sic). Human populations have adapted to warfare to the extent that more boys are born during war time. A question might well be that if there is an evolutionary benefit from war, how may we compensate for it if we attain everlasting peace?
A similar analysis could be applied to epidemics in the cities. The question could be answered and God's process could be verified: Did the more capable immune systems of humanity tend to escape deadly infection to an extent that could have affected human genetic factors? Have communist countries mismanaged their heritage in revolutions that selected the most intelligent for extinction? Is there any evidence that the brainy people who fled such revolutions to other countries added greatly to the advancement of the countries to which they fled? I believe that there is. It is evident that several countries which suffered through class revolutions where their intellectuals were systematically slaughtered and banished have been noticeably retarded since. We can only imagine what would happen in a society where the "least intelligent" were venerated and subsidized. If we are to avoid such horrible processes, we must study alternatives and apply them.
One very effective alternative may be to simply tell the Truth about hereditary behavior patterns and capabilities. Maybe an effective number of those educated people will change their pattern of sexual selection to an extent that subsequent generations may be improved and happier. All this could take place without wars, revolutions, riots, persecutions, or lynching if humanity were properly educated.
Competition and stress
If we should need wars, what would be adequate substitution? I proposed such a question at a conference of anthropologists and was censured for even thinking of such a question. To get the proper measure of the Truth, we have to think this sort of thing through in this manner, then we should do it! Our survival may depend on it.
The Holy Grail
From the editor: Since the majority of those who read this are, like the editor, a literate barbarian, you may find, after reading this, that you know a Steward. Stewards are not aware that they are an evolutionary product. You might find, after reading this, that you are a Steward. The rest of us can only hope to mimic this description.
Property and value
The Call to Stewardship
It has been implied that this philosophy is only for an elite in capability; people who can live without the supernatural.
That is not the case. This philosophy is a structure for all humans to contemplate and use as a tool to understand the nature
of things. This chapter has revealed the fact that for a healthy and sane life, people must assume a responsibility of
stewardship, to whatever degree they are capable, in a world society. In all ages there has been a call to capable people
to devote themselves to mankind. There is a universal need among people that such a calling fulfills.
Here we have presented rough descriptions of three populations of humanity: of preliterate populations, literate barbarian,
and steward, each with wide and overlapping measures of capability. At the middle of the nineteenth century, due to geographic
separations, these populations were mostly separate and distinguishable. Because of sexual mate selection, primarily, combined
with the other principles of evolution, today we find many overlapping qualities, exceptional combinations, and even new
populations in the real world which contain unidentified characteristics. All these combinations contribute to the broad
spectrum of human capabilities defined by the evolutionary development of the brain. We may be certain, however, without
being "racist" or "bigots", that aspects of these population's capabilities stubbornly continue on a broad scale despite
attempts to educate, convert, or redefine them. It should also be reiterated that evolution knows no direction. Without
environmental stress to maintain a positive heritable trait, a significant portion of any population known to possess that
trait will eventually lose it.
Property and value
The Call to Stewardship
It has been implied that this philosophy is only for an elite in capability; people who can live without the supernatural. That is not the case. This philosophy is a structure for all humans to contemplate and use as a tool to understand the nature of things. This chapter has revealed the fact that for a healthy and sane life, people must assume a responsibility of stewardship, to whatever degree they are capable, in a world society. In all ages there has been a call to capable people to devote themselves to mankind. There is a universal need among people that such a calling fulfills.
Here we have presented rough descriptions of three populations of humanity: of preliterate populations, literate barbarian, and steward, each with wide and overlapping measures of capability. At the middle of the nineteenth century, due to geographic separations, these populations were mostly separate and distinguishable. Because of sexual mate selection, primarily, combined with the other principles of evolution, today we find many overlapping qualities, exceptional combinations, and even new populations in the real world which contain unidentified characteristics. All these combinations contribute to the broad spectrum of human capabilities defined by the evolutionary development of the brain. We may be certain, however, without being "racist" or "bigots", that aspects of these population's capabilities stubbornly continue on a broad scale despite attempts to educate, convert, or redefine them. It should also be reiterated that evolution knows no direction. Without environmental stress to maintain a positive heritable trait, a significant portion of any population known to possess that trait will eventually lose it.